The city of Cajamarca, capital of the same name, is located in Mashcón River Valley, on the western slope of the northern Andes. His name, of Quechua origin, meaning "cold country". It is impossible to refer to it without mentioning its rich history, splendid architecture and the picturesque landscapes that surround it, an inspiration of renowned local painters. Cajamarca, moreover, are the most hospitable and cheerful in the Peruvian mountains. Whoever wants to check, visit the city in February, during carnival.
The oldest human remains in this region date back some 3000 years, when the area came under strong influence of the Cupisnique culture, and subsequently the Chavin. Since the beginning of the Christian era, Cajamarca established close links with the cultures of the north coast. By the sixth and seventh centuries AD, was influenced by the Wari culture (whose development center was in Ayacucho) and s.XIII was the center of a confederation of independent kingdoms which extended to the Rio Alto Maranon. Towards 1450, and after a strong resistance, the region was annexed to Cajamarca Inca empire and became an important administrative center and is the resting place of royalty Cuzco.
In the place where now stands the parade in 1532 the Marquis Francisco Pizarro captured the Inca Atahualpa, who had refused to submit to the Spanish Crown and the Christian faith. In exchange for his release, the Inca offered to fill a room with gold and twice with silver. It is said that the volume of the rescue was such that the casting of metals lasted more than thirty days. However, nine months after his capture condemned the Inca conquerors to garrotted. Thereafter, the Spanish settled in the city and adapted their designs to the design grid Inca or [checkerboard]. From the Inca city of Cajamarca left few traces.
In colonial times, Cajamarca's economy revolved around agriculture, livestock and production of textiles (for example there were done, the canvas for ships traveling through the South Pacific). The city reached its zenith in the s. XVII, with the discovery and exploitation of silver mines Hualgayoc. Cajamarca houses many colonial buildings which gives it a very especial.Gracias to it in 1986 was declared by the OAS and Cultural Heritage of the Americas.
Today Cajamarca is the largest city in the northern highlands of Peru. Live a time of economic growth driven by the development of gold mining, the traditional cattle, rainfed agriculture (maize as the main crop) and, more recently, tourism.
The city reflects the Spanish influence in the architecture of the cathedral, the churches of San Francisco, Bethlehem and the Recoleta, and their two-story houses and gabled roofs. East of the city, is the district Baños del Inca, famous for hot springs where the Inca used to bathe and also because there are the Windows of Otuzco, all niches of the ancient inhabitants. In the province of Cajamarca is the archaeological complex of Cumbemayo vestige of ceremonial altars and pre-Inca aqueducts and the province of San Pablo, Kuntur Wasi ceremonial complex, also pre-Inca, in various places and platforms supported by stone walls large.
Surrounded by beautiful countryside this city is a tourist destination. Be sure to visit.